Islamic Republic of Pakistan
National anthem of Pakistan
The Qaumī Tarāna
(Urdu: قومى ترانہ
) is the national anthem of Pakistan. The music of the anthem was composed by Ahmed Ghulamali Chagla, with lyrics written by Abu-Al-Asar
Hafeez Jullundhri. The three stanza composition was officially adopted in 1954. However, the music for the anthem had been composed in 1950 and had been used on several occasions before official adoption. The lyrics allude to a "Sacred Land" referring to Pakistan and a "Flag of the Crescent and Star" referring to the national flag. Unofficially, the anthem is sometimes called by its first line "Pāk sarzamīn shād bād"
(Urdu: "Blessed be the sacred land"). The national anthem is played during any event involving the hoisting of the flag, for example Pakistan Day (March 23) and Independence Day (August 14).
more information on Qaumi Tarana
Map of Pakistan
Basic information on Pakistan
The Indus Valley civilization, one of the oldest in the world and dating back at least 5,000 years, spread over much of what is presently Pakistan. During the second millennium B.C., remnants of this culture fused with the migrating Indo-Aryan peoples. The area underwent successive invasions in subsequent centuries from the Persians, Greeks, Scythians, Arabs (who brought Islam), Afghans, and Turks. The Mughal (Mongol) Empire flourished in the 16th and 17th centuries; the British came to dominate the region in the 18th century. The separation in 1947 of British India into the Muslim state of Pakistan (with West and East sections) and largely Hindu India was never satisfactorily resolved, and India and Pakistan fought two wars - in 1947-48 and 1965 - over the disputed Kashmir territory. A third war between these countries in 1971 - in which India capitalized on Islamabad's marginalization of Bengalis in Pakistani politics - resulted in East Pakistan becoming the separate nation of Bangladesh. In response to Indian nuclear weapons testing, Pakistan conducted its own tests in 1998. The dispute over the state of Kashmir is ongoing, but discussions and confidence-building measures have led to decreased tensions since 2002.
||Southern Asia, bordering the Arabian Sea, between India on the east and Iran and Afghanistan on the west and China in the north
||164,741,924 (July 2007 est.)
||green with a vertical white band (symbolizing the role of religious minorities) on the hoist side; a large white crescent and star are centered in the green field; the crescent, star, and color green are traditional symbols of Islam