Republic of India
National anthem of India
Jana Gana Mana
Jana Gana Mana
(Bengali: জন গণ মন Jôno Gôno Mono
) is the national anthem of India. Written in Bengali, it is the first of five stanzas of an ode composed and scored by Nobel laureate Rabindranath Tagore. It was first sung at the Calcutta Session of the Indian National Congress,on 27 December 1911. Jana Gana Mana
was officially adopted by the Constituent Assembly as the Indian national anthem on January 24, 1950. A formal rendition of the national anthem takes fifty two seconds. A shortened version consisting of the first and last lines (and taking about 20 seconds to play) is also staged occasionally. The music for the current version is derived from a composition for the song by Ram Singh Thakur.
more information on Jana Gana Mana
Map of India
Basic information on India
Aryan tribes from the northwest infiltrated onto the Indian subcontinent about 1500 B.C.; their merger with the earlier Dravidian inhabitants created the classical Indian culture. The Maurya Empire of the 4th and 3rd centuries B.C. - which reached its zenith under ASHOKA - united much of South Asia. The Golden Age ushered in by the Gupta dynasty (4th to 6th centuries A.D.) saw a flowering of Indian science, art, and culture. Arab incursions starting in the 8th century and Turkic in the 12th were followed by those of European traders, beginning in the late 15th century. By the 19th century, Britain had assumed political control of virtually all Indian lands. Indian armed forces in the British army played a vital role in both World Wars. Nonviolent resistance to British colonialism led by Mohandas GANDHI and Jawaharlal NEHRU brought independence in 1947. The subcontinent was divided into the secular state of India and the smaller Muslim state of Pakistan. A third war between the two countries in 1971 resulted in East Pakistan becoming the separate nation of Bangladesh. India's nuclear weapons testing in 1998 caused Pakistan to conduct its own tests that same year. The dispute between the countries over the state of Kashmir is ongoing, but discussions and confidence-building measures have led to decreased tensions since 2002. Despite impressive gains in economic investment and output, India faces pressing problems such as significant overpopulation, environmental degradation, extensive poverty, and ethnic and religious strife.
||Southern Asia, bordering the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal, between Burma and Pakistan
||1,129,866,154 (July 2007 est.)
||three equal horizontal bands of saffron (subdued orange) (top), white, and green with a blue chakra (24-spoked wheel) centered in the white band; similar to the flag of Niger, which has a small orange disk centered in the white band